Water Treatment Systems

In the past, most of us in the developed world opened the tap and drunk the water without putting too much thought into the matter. The same goes with regards to what happened to the water after we or other, more industrial, users used it – We also didn’t really think about it and in fact huge amounts of wastewater was flowed untreated to the ocean, to rivers and other water bodies.

Water treatment systems had always existed to some extent, also wastewater treatment systems. But it is only in recent decades that both domestic pre-use treatment systems and wastewater treatment systems became more common and now the importance of some of these systems is clear in so many ways.

Water treatment systems can refer to household or single tap treatment systems meant to improve the quality of water coming mainly from the local water company. It can refer to large scale drinking water treatment systems meant to purify and improve water coming from various sources or even produce drinking water from sea water (Desalination). The last major type of water treatment systems is designed for wastewater treatment, to clean and purify all sorts of wastewater according to a desired end use.

Domestic water treatment systems

These systems come in all shapes and sizes; they utilize a variety of technologies or scientific approaches. Some domestic water systems are installed before the water mains entrance to the house, some are physically on the tap or under it on the general plumbing and other very common systems are countertop purification systems also known as water “mini-bars”.

The technologies implemented in these various domestic or household water treatment systems are sometimes similar in nature to large scale treatment plants but in the majority of cases it is a filtration system. Systems use physical water filters to block particles and contaminants and also activated carbon filters and reverse osmosis to eliminate chemical and biological contaminants.

There are also domestic water treatment systems that are meant for wastewater – mainly greywater recycling.

Large drinking water systems

These treat water coming from different possible sources of fresh water designated for drinking and general use. It is treatment before the water goes to consumers. The most common water treatment systems for potable water use a treatment method that removes particles and possible contaminants using coagulation, sedimentation, filtration and disinfection – mostly done in special tanks or pools.

Wastewater treatment systems

This is the most widespread type of water treatment systems. These systems are designed to clean and purify wastewater coming from domestic sewage, industrial waste, commercial wastewater and all other used water. The systems need to remove numerous contaminants and pollutants, some very hazardous to man and the environment. There a lot of treatment methods used, they can be physical treatment, chemical or biological – mostly a combination of all.

The most common method is built from a few stages similar to drinking water treatment: Raw filtration of large debris and objects, coagulation and sedimentation of solids, removing and treating the created sludge, heavy-duty filtration stage using physical, chemical and/or biological filters, aeration, tertiary purification and then transfer to consumers.

Another method to implement a water purification system is purification using organisms such as plants, bacteria and fish.

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